As the world is moving to more environment-friendly options, industries have also glided towards producing more environment-friendly options. Refrigerant gases have also entered the modern era of sustainability with a lesser impact on the environment. With the ban on many HCFCs, CFCs, and other refrigerants like R22, you are now left with many options to choose from. Some of these options include Freon Refrigerants like R407c and R410a. This article will provide an in-depth comparison of these refrigerants discussing their various properties, and aspects to provide you with a comprehensive understanding of their applications and implications.
Composition and Chemical Structure
Although, both R407c and R410a are blends of different refrigerants, their composition and chemical structure still differ from each other.
- This refrigerant was developed in 1990 as a non-ozone-depleting blend of three HydroFluoroCarbons (HFCs): R32, R125, and R134.
- This refrigerant was originally designed to substitute R22 to provide the balance between efficient thermodynamic properties and environmental impact.
- R410a is also a non-depleting ozone Azeotropic blend of two Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs): R32 and R125.
- This blend of HFCs was designed to improve the efficiency and capacity of the system.
Global Warming Potential (GWP)
Even though both these refrigerants have zero ODP, their GWP still differs from each other.
- It has a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 1774.
- It has an Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) is zero which is the same as R410a.
- It has a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 2088. Its GWP is still considered high compared to other new refrigerants.
- It has Zero Ozone Depletion Potential which makes it safe for the environment.
- It has comparable thermodynamic properties to R22 because it was primarily designed to substitute R22. That makes it suitable for existing systems.
- Its capacity and pressure are somewhat similar to R22.
- It has better thermodynamic properties than R407c. It has higher efficiency and higher capacity compared to R410a.
- It is preferred in newer air conditioning systems that seek high efficiency.
|Refrigerant Type||Blend of HFCs||Blend of HFCs|
|Composition||R32, R125, R134a||R32, R125|
|Critical Temperature||86.2°C (187.2°F)||72.5°C (162.5°F)|
|Boiling Point at 1 atm||-43.8°C (-46.8°F)||-51.6°C (-60.9°F)|
|Density (at 25°C, 1 atm)||~1.15 kg/m³||~1.14 kg/m³|
|Specific Heat (at 25°C)||~0.56 kJ/kg°C||~0.56 kJ/kg°C|
|Latent Heat of Vaporization||~173 kJ/kg||~175 kJ/kg|
|Vapor Pressure (at 25°C)||~1.2 MPa||~1.5 MPa|
|Heat of Vaporization (at boiling point)||~306 kJ/kg||~300 kJ/kg|
|Coefficient of Performance (COP)||Varies based on system efficiency||Varies based on system efficiency|
- Its heat transfer characteristics aren’t as ideal as R410a which affects its efficiency.
- Its energy efficiency gets decreased by 5% when the system is retrofitted from R22 refrigerant because of the temperature difference of 6 degrees.
This refrigerant’s energy efficiency is one of its notable advantages, contributing to reduced energy consumption and operating costs.
Its higher heat transfer coefficient and higher condensation heat transfer coefficient make it commendable. Its heat transfer rate is 35% higher in the evaporator and 5% higher in the condenser.
- It is often used as a drop-in replacement for R22 in existing systems, requiring minimal modifications to the equipment.
- It requires oil modification from its mineral refrigeration oil to Polyester Oil (POE).
- There is no retrofit solution available for R10a.
- Due to its higher operating pressures, R410a requires systems designed specifically to accommodate these pressures.
- The lubrication oil used for R410a is composed of different synthetic lubricants. These lubricants are specifically designed for HFC blends. POE can also be used for R410a.
- This refrigerant operates at moderate pressures which make it compatible with systems using R22 as a refrigerant.
- Its glide is 10 degrees F which means that the boiling point temperature difference between its components is 10 degrees which can impact the system’s components.
- It operates at high pressures which require modifications to the system.
- The higher operating pressures of R410a require equipment designed to withstand these pressures, which may necessitate system upgrades.
Flammability and Toxicity
- R407c is non-flammable and non-toxic making it safe for the environment.
- This refrigerant is also non-flammable and non-toxic under typical operating conditions which make it safe for the environment.
- This refrigerant is used as a retrofit solution in existing systems, as well as in residential air conditioning including split ACs and heat pumps.
- It is also used in walk-in coolers, displays, and refrigerated storage.
- It is used in high-efficiency air-conditioners, data centers, chillers, heat pumps, and residential split systems.
In conclusion, the comparison of R407c and R410a reveals a range of factors to consider when selecting a refrigerant for cooling and air conditioning systems. While R410a offers superior efficiency and performance, its environmental impact in terms of GWP has driven the search for even more eco-friendly options. R407c, on the other hand, serves as a suitable retrofit solution for systems using R22, although its higher GWP could impact its long-term viability. As industries and regulations continue to evolve, the choice between these two refrigerants will be influenced by factors like environmental concerns, energy efficiency goals, and regulatory compliance.